Wednesday, March 24, 2021

Why Spring is a popular Java Framework?

The NorthCap University is highly focused on career based specialization for its students and one of such specialization is Java Full-stack where one handles both back-end development tasks such as database, frameworks, servers and also front-end development. In this blog we will talk about Java Spring framework which is a back end framework but before we get into the popularity of the Spring framework in particular, let us first understand why we need to use any framework at all.

As we all know, Java is a secure and robust language for developing web applications, and there are numerous open source and proprietary libraries and APIs to support .in this regard. So why do we need a framework after all?

  • Helps us focus on the core task only.
  • Brings together years of wisdom in the form of design patterns
  • Helps us adhere to the industry and regulatory standards
  • Brings down the total cost of ownership for the application
  • Binds to a specific version of language and libraries
  • Forces us to write an application in a specific manner

Frankly, there are no silver bullets in software development and frameworks are certainly no exception to that. As a result, the context should be used to determine which framework to use for application development.

Popular Java Frameworks Available in Market

Brief Overview of Spring Ecosystem

Spring is not a new framework. In fact, Rod Johnson released the first iteration of Spring in 2002. Subsequently, the framework grew in popularity due to its intuitive handling of common application architecture issues. Specifically, Spring’s greatest strength is as a container for the application. When you create your application within Spring, Spring will manage all of the challenges of maintaining references between objects. Significantly, Spring injects dependencies before the creation of new objects. Moreover, it gives developers greater control over the application’s control flow, all while managing that flow for developers.

Spring is not only a web framework

Mistakenly, developers often refer to Spring as a web framework. However, Spring can work in any Java application, no matter the context. While Spring does provide a module and extensions for building web applications, it’s not limited to the web. Because Spring Framework could handle what J2EE couldn't in a more straightforward and lightweight manner (nowadays is called JEE).

Furthermore, Spring is well-known for being a lightweight framework. It can also be considered a framework of frameworks because it supports a variety of frameworks such as Struts, Hibernate, Tapestry, EJB, JSF, and others. In a broader sense, the framework can be defined as a structure in which we find solutions to various technical problems.

In earlier days, J2EE was intended to create Enterprise Business Components like EJBs that could be easily distributed; however, the level of difficulty required to build and maintain J2EE applications resulted in the creation of the Spring framework; since then, Spring has grown tremendously. Also, in order to deploy a J2EE application, you need a J2EE Container (back then, there weren't many options: Bea WebLogic, IBM WebSphere.). As a result, Spring Applications can be deployed in Tomcat or other Servlet containers.

Comparison table between Spring and other Java based frameworks



Advantages of Spring Framework

There are many advantages of Spring Framework. They are as follows:

1) Predefined Templates

Spring framework provides templates for JDBC, Hibernate, JPA etc. technologies. So there is no need to write too much code. It hides the basic steps of these technologies.

2) Loose Coupling

The Spring applications are loosely coupled because of dependency injection.

3) Easy to test

The Dependency Injection makes easier to test the application. The EJB or Struts application require server to run the application but Spring framework doesn't require server.

4) Lightweight

Spring framework is lightweight because of its POJO implementation. The Spring Framework doesn't force the programmer to inherit any class or implement any interface. That is why it is said non-invasive.

5) Fast Development

The Dependency Injection feature of Spring Framework and it support to various frameworks makes the easy development of Java EE application.

6) Powerful abstraction

It provides powerful abstraction to Java EE specifications such as JMS, JDBC, JPA and JTA.

7) Declarative support

It provides declarative support for caching, validation, transactions and formatting. Spring framework is an open source Java platform that provides comprehensive infrastructure support for developing robust Java applications very easily and very rapidly.



Ms. Vaishali Kalra
Assistant Professor
Computer Science Department (Full-Stack Specialization)

The NorthCap University,Gurugram

Tuesday, March 23, 2021

My journey with The NorthCap University

Since a very young age, I felt remarkably inspired by law. Witnessing my father dealing with law and order state of affairs, and serve the society every day, evoked a sense of awe and respect for the field. Raised in an environment where law was central to most consultations, the development of a legal aptitude was perhaps in-the-making long before I consciously pursued legal education. The key reasons that crystallised my plan to study law included: the incalculability of the law and its applicability in our day-to-day lives, along with the constant learning prospects. These aspects continue to motivate me in my legal field till date.

My journey with The NorthCap University (NCU) began back in 2016, and there’s been no looking back. During my graduation period which was from 2016 - 2021 , I’ve been handling litigation matters and currently specialising in technology laws at Tygar Law Corporate. The interest to learn about a assortment of laws has taken me from running across various court rooms in India to gaining international court exposure, assisting law firms, and finally, finding an exciting job placement at Kher & Kher Law Offices , all credit goes to SPA Team of the University.

Through five years of studying law at NCU, I observed a mini revolution in the development of effective pedagogy. Today, because of the vision of the Vice Chancellor, Prof. H.B Raghavendra, together with the hard work put in by the faculty, students and administration, NCU has achieved some incredible milestones for such a young university. I am honored to call this University my alma mater.

I hold great respect for all the faculty members who made conscious efforts to transition from conventional ways of teaching to encouraging students to develop higher order thinking. Be it core arts and law subjects or the wide range of electives that were offered to us, we were constantly moving ahead on the learning curve. The cooperative learning environment extended by Prof. Archana Sarma (Criminal Law), Prof. Pallavi Bajpai (International Commercial Arbitration), Prof. Vaiji Raghunathan (Advance Contract Drafting), Prof. Priyanki Gupta (IBC Law), and Prof. Pushpesh Pant (Media & Sports Law) amongst many other brilliant faculty members instilled in me a deep and lifelong appreciation. During my time at NCU, I received a gamut of unique academic exposures including being a part of research centres at University, attending various Legal Aid Camps, Moot Court Competitions and National Client Consultation Competitions, a member of the Editorial Board of NCU Law Journal and various other National Conferences.

As our faculties encouraged us to intern from the very first year of law school, it gave us a prospect as students of law to a get an acumen into what it truly feels like to be a lawyer. I usually opted for non-normative internship opportunities that I am convinced helped me in bringing a transformational change and opened my mind to explore different legal fields. Although my role as an intern with respect to handling matters was narrow, the experiences were helpful in ratifying my interest in law.

An exciting opportunity came my way when NCU School of Law collaborated with the District Legal Services Authority for a Cyber Security Week and I considered myself really lucky to be selected. It was one of the most enriching experiences to represent NCU/India and to work with outstanding members of the DLSA Authority including Shri. Pardeep Chaudhary, who continues to be my mentor and source of inspiration.

NCU introduced me to some of the best peers possible, in the most conducive culture. A big thanks to each and every student of the Class of 2016 for being truly remarkable! I think the culture amongst students at NCU is very positive and the value of “we” is commendable.

It was the little things as much as the big moments that made memories of law school utterly unforgettable. I remember one night before exams, some really talented students took night sessions to revise the courses for the benefit of all. Absolutely everyone from the batch used to be there. It reflected an empowering culture amongst students that prevails across NCU. Another cherished memory is from a time when I was elected as the President of Legal Aid Society and the society planned to organise ‘Legal Aid Camp’ for the first time outside Campus. We sent out a mail requesting for volunteers and around 150 students from across all the batches and schools of NCU came together and helped the society organise the event. These incidents continue to have a deep impact in my life. So, to ambitious young budding lawyers, I would say: all of us have a surreptitious superpower—our mindset. An individual with a growth mindset can principally have the power to stretch and stick to a situation even when it’s challenging, which I feel is extremely important and valuable for a lawyer.

During graduation, I started working with some of the most hardworking litigators in Delhi. It was a noteworthy learning experience working alongside Mr. Narinder Hooda. I was also retained by Y.P Associates, which provided a very valuable organisational experience. Consequently, I switched to independent practice where I was empanelled with innumerable real estate and tech companies. Working as a part of litigation and corporate teams and then an attempt at independent practice has cumulatively helped me in identifying, analysing, drafting and challenging key legal issues in a thorough manner.

The decision to work as an in-house counsel came in furtherance of my interest to explore a variety of laws. I didn’t want to resist myself to one certain field of law and was convinced that an in-house role is more suitable for me. After several months of looking for opportunities and applying at various organisations, my job application was acknowledged by Kher & Kher Associates.

I am elatedly looking forward to this new voyage!



Amardeep Chahal
16llb007, Batch (2016 – 2021)
The NorthCap University Gurugram

Tuesday, March 16, 2021

NexGen Emerging Scops in Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR)

Have you ever had one of those late-night thinking sessions where you sit and wonder what exactly is reality? No, I’m not talking about the literal meaning of life, this blog is not to drown you in a pool of existential crisis. By definition reality means the state of things as they actually exist. Now what if I told you reality can be whatever you want without you needing to snatch the reality stone from thanos. All you need is some correct guidance and an in-depth knowledge of AR and VR, that is augmented reality and virtual reality and we at NorthCap University Gurugram are here to cater to your imaginative endeavours.

Augmented reality and virtual reality may seem like similar sounding terms at first but in essence there’s a lot more to each of these technologies. Augmented reality adds digital elements to a live view often by using the camera on a smartphone. Examples of augmented reality experiences include Snapchat lenses. Your favourite Instagram filters use Augmented reality to craft out those gorgeous looking photos. Remember the summer of 2016 when the whole world was catching pokemons with their phones? That was one of the first major breakthroughs of augmented reality when Pokemon Go took the world by a storm. Virtual reality on the other hand implies a complete immersion experience that shuts out the physical world. Using VR headsets such as google cardboard or oculus rift users can be transported into a number of real worlds and imagined environments such as the final level of god of war 3 or riding buckbeak as Harry Potter and exploring the grounds of Hogwarts in the comfort of your living room.

Like I mentioned in the start of this blog the scope of AR and VR is as vast as the horizons of your imagination. Currently the most widely accepted use of AR and VR is for games, leisure and entertainment. The demand for VR games has seen a paradigm increase with the recent technological strides made in the industry. E-commerce and retail is another area which has greatly benefited from augmented reality and will continue to do so in upcoming years. AR apps let shoppers interact with products and help in creating personalized shopping experiences. Lenskart was one of the first apps in India that implemented this by allowing users to try the look of frames through their selfie camera and considering that most of you reading this are wearing frames from Lenskart, I don’t have to explain how AR helped them to become industry leaders. Interior designing, landscaping and urban planning is another field which has reaped the benefits of AR. Apps like IKEA Place not only help to measure objects and walls but designers and owners can also test colours and other ideas to calculate the necessary materials and labour costs. Tourism and travel is another industry that has begun to use AR. Tourism involves various transportation modes, hotel bookings, hospitality, tours and sightseeing, local experiences like cuisine or festivals, souvenirs, etc. Therefore, the industry abounds with augmented reality business opportunities. Google maps got an AR update recently to allow the users to view streets through their smartphone’s camera and the directions appear on their screens. Education and training is yet another field that has implemented this technology to greatly enhance the learning experience. AR technology makes schooling more interactive, engaging, and efficient. For instance, with AR applications, students can observe a 3D galaxy on their tablets or witness an extinct animal come to life. VR will help students to see scientific breakthroughs from the scientists’ perspective or even make the discoveries in a virtual lab themselves. Lastly I would like to talk about the scope of AR and VR in healthcare because the need for survival transcends all other needs. The healthcare industry is a Petri dish for augmented and virtual reality business ideas. AR apps are already used for a variety of tasks, from helping patients to identify their symptoms to enabling surgeons to peer inside a patient's body without making large incisions. A combination of VR, gaming software, and medical imaging procedures already offers simulation capabilities and detailed organ maps. Surgeons will be able to plan ahead and avoid previously unforeseeable issues. That’ll minimize invasive procedures, reduce complications for the patients, and promote faster recoveries.

With AR and VR finding their use in a plethora of industries, the demand for its development has increased manifold. Observing this ever widening scope of AR and VR, the NorthCap university introduced a new specialization, game development with augmented reality and virtual reality where we make sure that we make your dream of becoming an AR and VR developer comes true.

Sidhant Gumber By 19CSU308
Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR)
NexGen Emerging Scops
The NorthCap University Gurugram

Tuesday, March 9, 2021

Blending theory with practical applications of Economics through R-programming

In this fast-moving world, working on large sets of information and data has become the norm. To support the analysis of such large sets of information, R-programming as a statistical package is gaining importance. R is a programming language based freely available software environment for statistical computing and graphics, supported by the R Foundation, which is widely used among statisticians and data miners for data analysis. The software is greatly enhanced by numerous contributed packages submitted by users. Especially for economic analysis, including parameters of population, national income, among others, R package has become the go to statistical analysis environment to analyze data and come up with accurate results that can be presented in graphical format as well. To facilitate the employability of students in the industry, academia and public sector, it is crucial that they are aware of the nitty gritty of working with R-programming. In pursuit of the same, the B.A. (hons) course offered by the School of Management and Liberal Studies at The NorthCap University, offers in its programme, course titled “Statistical Programming with R”. The purpose of this course is to set a foundation for full exploitation and creative use of the statistical language for computing and graphics in R. In this course, students learn to program in R and how to effectively use R for statistical computing. The course emphasis is on data manipulation, basic statistical analysis and testing of economic theories. During the course students identify appropriate statistical methods for the data or specific problems and conduct their own analysis using R environment. Pursuing a graduate program at School of Management and Liberal Studies at The NorthCap University in Economics prepares the students to develop employability skills such as R Programming, which guides them to the path of excellence based on strong theoretical fundamentals, enriched with training of application and analysis theories and real life issues.


Mansi Vinaik
Assistant Professor
School of Management and Liberal Studies
The NorthCap University Gurugram

Monday, March 8, 2021

Marketing as a Career Choice

School of Management at The NorthCap University is highly focused on career based specializations for their students. As business, is an amalgamation of various functional areas, the school of management offers specializations in various functional areas. Marketing as a specialization or elective is one of the most demanded choice across business schools worldwide, when it comes to building of a professional business oriented career. Marketing as a career choice is preferred due to the fact that this elective choice offers a bouquet of career avenues to the future ready business marketers. Marketing as an academic function provides career choices in three broad career tracks namely Creating, Communicating and Delivering. When it comes to the Creating Track, career choices revolves around product development, brand development, research for market preferences etc. Careers in Communication Track, revolves around the portfolios of advertisement executive, media planner, content writer, search engine executive, social media manager etc. “Delivering Track” provides the career avenues in the field of sales and business development. In this track, career choices can have a platter of the job roles having inside sales, business to business sales, corporate sales, retail sales, online sales, business development, partnership alliance etc. Marketing as a career is influenced by the various technological advancements happening at a fast pace and as a result new career avenues are emerging, having integration of marketing and technology. The careers having a marketing-tech ideology includes; marketing data analyst, marketing intelligence analyst, marketing data custodian etc. Before, choosing a track within marketing, skill and competency mapping of job role vs individual is highly essential. Marketing careers are always expected to better in comparison to others, due to the fact that , businesses are always looking to hold onto their share of the market as well as expand to grab a larger chunk of the market. It is not an exaggeration to state that marketing careers attract creative and driven individuals who are passionate for “Marketing” & “Employability”. School of management ensures through live projects, experiential learning, industry oriented sessions etc. to equip the future marketers with contemporary marketing skills. It is no wonder, brands are always eager to have marketing students of school of management on their board.


Dr. Nimit Gupta, Professor

School of Management & Liberal Studies

The NorthCap University

Zooming on: Economic revival, growth and the focus areas for our country in 2021

January 2021 has brought cheer to the Indian economy, reflected in improvement in market sentiment and new peaks scaled by the stock markets. Our country appears to be coming out of the Covid-crisis, gradually. Much awaited vaccines also have arrived! We are upbeat about the prospects for the economy, and according to the experts, what we are experiencing is ‘V’ shape recovery of the economy. There are expectations that after contraction to the extent of around 7% in the current year, Indian economy can grow at the fastest pace in the world again next year and grow up to 11% in 2021-22. This is the view of the government and IMF too. All this augurs well for the country, aiming to become $5 trillion economy. However, scaling new peaks for the Indian economy needs attention to three important issues/areas: Quality, supply chain management and innovation.

Quality is the prime requirement for global acceptability of products. We have to improve the quality of Indian products and services, and build our credibility around quality. Self-reliance or ‘Aatmanirbharta’ and making ‘local products for global applications’ need focus on quality. ‘Brand India’ has to be known for ‘quality with sustainability’! Our Prime Minister too has been stressing on ‘zero defect and zero effect’, on sustainable development and excellence. We have to safeguard the interests of present as also the future generations. This is possible when we think about quality and sustainable supply chains!

Supply chain management and logistics are the tonic for the economy. Logistics, infrastructure, technology and strategic initiatives, along with quality, can help create increased and sustained demand for ‘Made in India’ products. ‘Demand pull’ is the dream of every supplier and its realisation is possible if the country keeps focus on quality in inputs, processes and outputs. After the success in winning the war on corona in 2020, 2021 can well be the inflection point for us as was the second world-war for Japan, which focussed on quality from 1950s onwards. It learnt from the teachings of Dr Juran and Dr Deming, developed new Total Quality Control (TQC) techniques and became known for concepts and tools like kaizen, fish-bone diagram, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Just-in-time (JIT), Toyota Production System (TPS) philosophy and so many other concepts and techniques. The efforts brought out the Japanese economy from the ravages of war and Japanese products became synonymous with quality by 1970s. Japan became the most important part of global supply chain, especially in electronics and automobiles. Today, we too have the need and the opportunity and our IT talent is the booster for us. IT talent, through technological innovations, has played an important role during the Covid times. IT is ushering never-seen-before innovations!

Innovation is going to provide the required global push to our products and services. Our youth have to have innovative thinking, make use of technology, create innovative products and not duplicate the efforts of other countries. AI, cloud, IoT are accelerating the growth of the industry, called Industry 4.0. Innovations in education, health and pharmaceutical sectors are the real blessings of 2020 for our country.

Technology has helped educational institutions and the students face the challenging times with ease. The NorthCap University being frontrunner in technology adoption started online classes on Microsoft Teams from March 16, 2020, much before lockdown was announced, and utilized Technology tools like Learning Management System (LMS) and ERP in imparting students, seamless learning.

Technological innovations and innovative thinking will help us leapfrog completion and take our country to new heights! To conclude, dedication to quality- creating value for money for the customer, investments in logistics and infrastructure and innovation will help the Indian economy zoom on!


     
    Prof. SK Breja

    School of Management

    The NorthCap University

Covid-19 and its Global Impact


 

Introduction

Coronavirus is a family of viruses that includes SARS and MERS and typically causes respiratory tract infections of varying lethality. Though human coronavirus was first discovered in the mid-1960s, COVID-19’s earliest known infections were found in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and was declared a pandemic by WHO in March 2020. In addition to lack of immunity and no proven vaccines being currently available, several other factors have contributed towards COVID-19’s rise to the global pandemic.

First is the rate of infections or how many other people an average patient infects. COVID-19 patients affect up to twice the number of people as common cold within the same setting, making the number of infections grow exponentially.

Second, a significant number of cases are asymptomatic. At least 50% of the cases do not show any symptoms, making tracing and controlling the virus much more difficult to control.

Third, the virus affects people with decreased immunity, which could be due to multiple reasons, much more severely. This had led to more deaths in countries with a larger share of the older population or pre-existing diseases.

The last part of the equation is disinformation and misinformation. The impact on people’s physical and mental health, correct diagnostic and controlling processes, lack of access to support due to inequality, nature of the virus, and other unknowns have contributed to its large-scale impact.

However, McKinsey’s recent survey suggests a positive shift in economic sentiment with more than half of the executives saying that their country's economic conditions will improve in the next six months.


Impact of the Virus

Worldwide

There is still substantial uncertainty about COVID-19’s impact on people’s lives and livelihoods. A lot is dependent on the epidemiology of the virus, containment measures undertaken by governments, and the development of vaccines, all of which are hard to predict.

In January, the IMF had predicted global growth in 2020 to be 3.3%, but in April, the projection was updated to -3% in their World Economic Outlook report. This makes it the worst recession since the Great Depression, and far worse than the Global Financial Crisis in 2008. This would also translate to a cumulative loss of global GDP over 2020 and 2021 to be 9 trillion dollars.

However, there is a huge variation in the economic impact within individual countries, primarily depending on the actions taken to tackle the pandemic. In Asia, China’s GDP dropped by 36.6% in the first quarter of 2020, while Korea saw a decline of 5.5%. Within the European Union, Finland and Norway’s economy shrank by 5% each, whereas Spain and the UK saw a decline of over 20% compared to the second quarter of 2019. The United States also saw its GDP decline by 10%, and the unemployment rate increase to 14.1% in April 2020.

Apart from the direct economic impacts, COVID-19 is also likely to have other long-term impacts. A World Economic Forum study says that the pandemic has accelerated the shift towards automation in industries. Similarly, with employees forced to work from home, there may be changes in the work environment and culture.


 


India

India suffered a relatively severe economic impact of COVID-19 compared to most developed countries, experiencing its first negative growth since 1980. India’s GDP had contracted by 23.9% in Q1 2020, compared to the 5.2% growth it had during the same time last year. However, individual sectors fared the pandemic differently, with manufacturing being the worst hit and agriculture the only sector that reported growth during the period.

This has directly impacted millions of Indians’ livelihoods, with 19.4% having their payments deferred and 57% receiving salary cuts, on top of an estimated 140 million lost jobs. The situation has improved slightly post the lockdown period, with total deferred payments being 11.5% and salary cuts at 43%.

At first, the recession may seem just a supply shock similar to the financial crisis in 2008, but that is not the case. Due to uncertainty revolving around the virus and many non-permanent workers, particularly within the affected industries, households have increased their precautionary savings, and firms are wary of investing until the situation clears. Between April and June, private consumption had declined by 27% year on year, and investment by 47.5%. Nomura has also predicted that aggregate demand in July was just 67% of its pre-pandemic levels.

Actions

The Government of India has taken various steps from the beginning of the lockdown to reduce its impact on the economy and resume growth. This includes not just through the fiscal policy but also working with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on its monetary policy. For instance, the finance minister announced relaxations within corporate tax laws as well as the Insolvency and Banking Code (IBC) in which the monetary threshold for initiation of insolvency proceedings was increased from ₹1 lakh to ₹1 crore. Since many businesses had lost their revenue due to the lockdowns and were expected to default their payments, this notification prevented several firms from being dragged to National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), which would have further hampered the economy.

The government also announced a relief package of ₹20 lakh crore, equating to 10% of the GDP, of which liquidity-enhancing initiatives accounted for the bulk of the share. Similarly, many measures within the package were aimed towards the middle term, with benefits expected to be witnessed in 3 years, instead of a package focused on short term needs such as the decreasing demand or to pump money into the economy for upgradation of services like the health sector.

Out of the total package, ₹3 lakh crore has been provided as collateral-free loans for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), a move aimed at enabling 45 lakh units to restart work and save jobs. Although the MSME sector is important for employment, it is highly dependent on the rest of the economy for its market. Hence, unless the rest of the domestic economy was also revived, the MSME sector would have faced a shortage of demand and decreased production once again. This was visible as the cuts in lending rates did not lead to a major increase in borrowers. In fact, commercial banks chose to park their capital with the central bank using its reverse repo window, which went up from 3 lakh crore in March to 8.5 lakh crores by April.

The relief package also included an extension of Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana to provide free ration to over 80 crore people by five more months, which would cost the government ₹90,000 crores. The poor also received direct benefits like free gas cylinders and direct money transfer to their bank account, ranging from ₹500-₹2000 under various schemes, costing the government another ₹2 lakh crores.

Within the relief package, ₹1.6 lakh crore was allocated to agriculture and allied sectors to strengthen their infrastructure, logistics, and capacity building. Along with the relief package, the Essential Commodities Act was also amended after more than 6 decades. However, a third of the farmer community was left out of these schemes. Likewise, developing infrastructure through the various initiatives will produce results in the medium to long term but not help with the current disruptions in harvesting and procurement. To ease short term pressures on the farmer community, a 3-month moratorium period on agricultural loans was introduced that benefited 3 crore farmers at the cost of ₹4.22 lakh crores.

The package also included additional funds for National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) to provide refinancing to cooperative banks and support to the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund and working capital for state government entities involved in the procurement of agricultural produce. This is estimated to cost ₹41,000 crores and would bring a positive change in helping fix the demand problem.

Recommendations

The Government of India has been proactive in reducing the economic impact of COVID-19 and ensuring the safety of its population. Although various initiatives have been launched, improvements can be made to navigate the current crisis better.

Additional funds can be distributed for rural livelihoods along with PM Kisan Samaan Nidhi payments to spur demand. Production of masks, PPEs, and other accessories like sanitizers could be done indigenously to provide additional employment opportunities and provide more occupations under MGNREGA to help the migrant workers. Lastly, APMC can be waived for large corporate purchasers to set up their supply chains and enable farmers to reach buyers better.

Workers living in urban areas should be enrolled for National Food Security benefits to ensure laid-off workers' food safety, especially within the informal sector. Likewise, the benefits of Ayushman Bharat Yojana can be extended to informal workers to prevent further disruption of migrant workers. These workers carry the risk of reverse migration, which may lead to large impacts on the economy. Hence, they should be taken to urban centers in a structured manner and a monthly provision for support income.

To help MSMEs, which were among the worst hit, along with more relaxation in Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code from what was already done by the government, RBI prudential norms can be reviewed for each sector that has been hit by COVID-19. Debt restructuring and rollovers can also be allowed. Furthermore, all outstanding payments to MSMEs from the center, state, and PSUs should be paid immediately to ensure they have enough working capital.

To maintain stability within the financial sector, the government can provide a guarantee for outstanding debts. Simultaneously, the RBI should ensure sufficient liquidity to unjam the corporate bond market, which risks leading to a flood of defaults. The government can also instruct other agencies such as the Employee’s Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) to resume buying corporate bonds. Similarly, state governments should also make legacy payments to delayed heads, for which additional funds can be provided by the central government if needed.

Industries such as aviation and manufacturing are the most affected and, thus, require additional support. This support can be offered through concessional GST rates, debt principal payments being frozen until the situation improves, and making changes to industry-specific regulations to spur growth. The energy demand is also at 50% of the pre-COVID times. Hence, power generation companies should be directly addressed, and cash flows granted to ensure the system’s sustainability.

Along with the crisis brought by the pandemic, it has also created opportunities to fix several long-term issues affecting the economy. As the lockdown has severely impacted the informal sector and requires access to liquidity through the relief package, this opportunity must be used to get the enterprises registered and be brought under the tax umbrella. Thus, increasing the government’s indirect taxes in the long run. Formalization of the informal sector will also enable workers working within these businesses to get access to various government schemes. However, to not force formalization, long-term plans for the informal sector should also be considered like skills and enterprise support.

Lastly, while the formal sector will grow in size, the system needed to handle them should also scale up. Better identification measures should be developed and used to keep track of payments and other benefits received by the MSMEs, which has been one of the most crucial aspects preventing them from receiving economic relief.

Educational Institutes

Educational institutes are a few areas that have been kept closed for the most amount of time, with more than 1.5 billion students being affected by these closures worldwide. School closures can adversely affect their health, education, and development. Disruption to instructional time can affect a child's ability to learn while also increasing the chances of social injustice and pressure. Closures also disrupt school-based services, and there exists a vast disparity between schools of different countries. Many schools are unable to offer remote education or alternatives, and keeping children home also affects parents' ability to work, introducing other risks. Because of the closures, children made up only 8% of the reported cases and are unlikely to be the main drivers of Covid-19 transmission. However, the closure of schools is not a sustainable solution. It should be considered if there is no other alternative, as schools reduced community transmission less than other social distancing interventions.

A risk-based approach should be followed for reopening educational institutions to minimize risk to students and staff, such as gauging public health capacity and evaluating school readiness and resources to maintain Covid-19 prevention. 

In this regard, The NorthCap University was one of the first universities in India to switch to online teaching and has been conducting online classes without any hurdles for almost a year now but, leaving no stones unturned, is undertaking all the necessary precautions to prepare for the reopening and balance the work and fun aspect of the university. The most effective way to prevent the spread of the virus is social distancing; hence, all the desks have been spaced at least six feet apart and ensure no more than two students sit at a single desk. Markings have also been made in the hallways to ensure social distancing is followed at all times. All mass gathering activities have also been avoided to the extent possible, with this year's convocation ceremony being held entirely online. Special guidelines have been made for maintaining hygiene in the university while also adhering to evolving public-health-informed measures put in place by the Government. 

Voluntary offline classes have also been made available with sanitizing stations present throughout the university. From mandatory masks for students and staff to a special Covid-19 task force team, these steps ensure all the students receive the best educational facilities available and make the most out of them, while being safe. 

About the writer :-

Anant Gulia is a second year student pursuing

B.Tech (Computer Science and Engineering)

The NorthCap University, Gurugram